Reference Guides


MRI in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Protocols and Best Practices

MRI in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Protocols and Best Practices

Since there is no definitive test for multiple sclerosis (MS), patients suspected of having the disease undergo a variety of different tests in diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is part of that process…

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March 29, 2022
Skeletal Trauma and Signs of Child Abuse in Pediatric Imaging

Skeletal Trauma and Child Abuse in Pediatric Imaging

In this article, we will review pediatric classifications and age ranges, parts of bone growth on radiographs, and different types of pediatric skeletal trauma, along with identifying potential signs of child abuse…

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March 21, 2022

10 Things for RTs to Consider in Repeat X-Ray Imaging

The radiographer’s main job is to acquire images of excellent diagnostic quality while adhering to the ALARA principle. Sometimes that means repeating an image, and sometimes it doesn’t. It is your responsibility…

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March 14, 2022
informed consent in radiology

Informed Consent in Radiology: A Technologist’s Guide

Patients today are becoming increasingly well-informed and are demanding more involvement in decisions related to their medical care. To make a sensible decision concerning his or her treatment, a patient needs…

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February 23, 2022
How To Deal With Angry Patients: A Rad Tech’s Guide

How To Deal With Angry Patients: A Rad Tech’s Guide

Workers in healthcare settings face significant risks of workplace violence. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), healthcare workers (HCWs) are four times more likely to be victimized…

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February 21, 2022
Patient Confidentiality in Healthcare: The Radiology Department

Patient Confidentiality in Healthcare: The Radiology Department

Radiologists and radiographers have been at the forefront of adopting digital medical imaging and electronic health information. In order to provide high quality medical care to patients, radiologists and radiographers…

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February 21, 2022
Infection Prevention and Control Measures in the Radiology Department for COVID-19

Infection Prevention and Control Measures in the Radiology Department for COVID-19

In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia associated with a novel coronaviruses were registered in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. This virus was officially named by the World Health Organization…

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January 12, 2022
Understanding Emotional Health: A Rad Tech's Guide

Understanding Emotional Health: A Rad Tech’s Guide

Radiologic technologists, along with other healthcare professionals, have been bearing the weight of unprecedented challenges during the protracted COVID healthcare crisis. Now, with the new Omicron…

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January 11, 2022
Ethical Issues in Radiology: A Guide for Rad Techs

Ethical Issues in Radiology: A Guide for Rad Techs

Radiologic technologists plays a key role in the healthcare cycle. Acting with compassion and sensitivity, as well as with professional behavior, all while remaining calm is an integral part of this role…

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December 20, 2021

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) 3D Planning

This article addresses intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning—specifically the dynamic MLC delivery type—and its importance in radiation therapy treatment. In this article, we’ll define the different delivery types…

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November 12, 2021
Cultural Competence in Healthcare & the Rad Tech

Cultural Competence in Healthcare & the Rad Tech

Today, multiculturalism, diversity, and identity have come to the forefront of studies and literature in a multitude of fields, including diagnostic medical imaging. New educational approaches attempt to incorporate…

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September 22, 2021
The Role of RTTs in Providing Patient Emotional Support

The Role of RTTs in Providing Patient Emotional Support

Almost all cancer patients report grappling with their emotions at various points during their treatment. It is common for patients to feel worried, sad, scared, furious, disappointed, alone, or powerless….

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September 16, 2021

Everything You Need To Know About the ARRT® Standards of Ethics

RTs are faced with ethical dilemmas every day. It comes with the territory. Sometimes it can be difficult to know what is right or to do the right thing. Even so, the best interests of patients should always be the ultimate principle…

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June 16, 2021
CT Scan for Renal Vascular Disease: Imaging Protocol Guide

CT Scan for Renal Vascular Disease: Imaging Protocol Guide

This article is part of our series of reference guides aimed at supporting computed tomography (CT) technologists in improving their clinical routines, enhancing the quality of the images they acquire, and delivering…

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March 22, 2021
Radiation Therapists' Role in the CT Simulation Room

Radiation Therapists’ Role in the CT Simulation Room

Radiation therapists play multiple, important roles in the treatment of patients with cancer. As part of the oncology teams that treat patients with cancer, radiation therapists operate machines that deliver concentrated…

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March 8, 2021
CT Imaging Guide: The Larynx

CT Imaging Guide: The Larynx

Computed Tomography (CT) scanning can be a valuable tool in assessing trauma to and the many different pathologies of the laryngeal space. This article is part of our series on Computed Tomography (CT), and addresses the larynx…

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March 1, 2021
Comparing Radiation Dosimeters

Comparing Radiation Dosimeters

The primary source of a radiologic technologist’s radiation exposure comes from scatter radiation emanating from patients. In order to keep the rad techs’ occupational dose exposure levels lower than the annual…

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February 22, 2021
Radiation Protection in PET/CT

Radiation Protection in PET/CT

Did you know that a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis exposes an individual to about 10 mSv, while a PET/CT exposes an individual to about 25 mSv of radiation? This is equal to about 8 years of average background…

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February 15, 2021
Exposure Index, Deviation Index, and Optimal Radiographic Imaging

Exposure Index, Deviation Index, and Optimal Radiographic Imaging

What is the difference between exposure index and deviation index in digital imaging, and how can you know if you have an optimal radiographic image? This article aims to answer both questions for rad techs…

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February 5, 2021
CT Imaging of the Pituitary Gland

CT Imaging of the Pituitary Gland

This article is part of our series on Computed Tomography (CT). Here, we address pituitary gland anatomy, physiology, and pathologies, as well as the CT scanning protocols for imaging the pituitary gland…

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February 1, 2021
MRI Zones: A Guide for Rad Techs

MRI Zones: A Guide for Rad Techs

MRI accidents happen all the time. Most of them are due to zone infractions, whether it be a person or an object that entered a restricted zone. It is a shared responsibility among the staff members of the facility…

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January 18, 2021
Radiation Therapy Uses and Radiotherapy Applications

Radiation Therapy Uses: A Guide to Clinical Applications of Radiation Therapy

Radiotherapy or radiation therapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is a therapy using ionizing radiation normally delivered by a linear accelerator. It is a common misconception that the only use for radiation therapy…

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January 12, 2021
paranasal sinus x-ray views

X-Ray Positioning: Paranasal Sinuses

The paranasal sinus x-ray is no longer a common procedure, but it is one that is still occasionally requested by physicians. For radiologic technologists receiving an order this relatively obscure imaging procedure…

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December 18, 2020
MRI Contrast Safety: Possible Gadolinium Side Effects

MRI Contrast Safety: Possible Gadolinium Side Effects

This article is focused on MRI contrast media safety, specifically on the possible side effects of gadolinium, preventative measures that you as an MRI technologist can take, and what to do if your patient does experience…

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December 15, 2020
MRI Safety and Risks: Biological Effects of MRI

MRI Safety and Risks: Biological Effects of MRI

This article is part of our series on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety and risks. This article addresses some of the biological effects associated with MRI, discusses safe MRI practices, practical prevention…

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December 7, 2020
MRI Protocols for the Diagnosis of Epilepsy

MRI Protocols for the Diagnosis of Epilepsy

This article is intended as a quick reference guide for MRI technologists on the MRI protocols used in the diagnosis of epilepsy. While MRI cannot provide absolute evidence of epilepsy, it is an invaluable tool…

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November 26, 2020
Inversion Recovery: MRI Sequence Guide

Inversion Recovery: MRI Sequence Guide

This guide to inversion recovery is part of our series of guides to MRI sequences. Itself a variation of the spin echo sequence, the inversion recovery is also the basis for two additional MRI pulse sequences: the fast spin echo…

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November 17, 2020
Fast Spin Echo: MRI Sequence Guide

Fast Spin Echo: MRI Sequence Guide

This guide is intended for radiologic technologists and will cover the FSE chronogram, important parameters, advantages and limitations of the sequence, as well as its usage, also providing examples of what an MRI image…

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November 5, 2020
Spin Echo: MRI Guide

Spin Echo: MRI Sequence Guide

This is the first in our series of guides for radiologic technologists on MRI sequences. In MRI, a sequence is a combination of radiofrequency waves and gradient pulses which are both applied at very specific times and in…

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October 30, 2020

DBT: Tips for Acquiring Better Quality Images

Post-processing can be done at the technologist’s workstation. Window level and window width can be adjusted. Although, major adjustments are not recommended because the computer has already optimized the image…

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October 23, 2020
Benign Breast Pathologies

Benign Breast Pathologies

Benign breast conditions are very common. Unlike breast cancers, benign breast tumors are not considered dangerous or life-threatening. They do not spread to other parts of the body, nor do they invade nearby tissues.

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October 23, 2020
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: An Overview of 3D Mammography

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: An Overview

This article is intended to provide a brief overview of digital breast tomosynthesis, or 3D mammography, for practicing mammography technologists, mammography technologists-to-be, rad techs who may be interested…

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October 16, 2020
A Quick Guide

Mammography Projections and Positioning: A Quick Guide

A mammo tech knows that breast positioning is critical to the success of a mammogram. Proper positioning for each projection helps to ensure that more breast tissue is imaged, most artifacts are eliminated, and the sensitivity…

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October 15, 2020
Patient Care in Mammography

Patient Care in Mammography: The Technologist’s Guide

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Each October, charities, research organizations, mammography technologists, and individuals touched by breast cancer take part in Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

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October 9, 2020
X-Ray Positioning Guide: Toes

X-Ray Positioning Guide: Toes

Here, we’re talking x-rays for toes. This article is intended as a quick x-ray positioning guide for radiologic technologists on radiographic positioning of the foot for x-rays to show the patient’s toes including 5 views…

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October 7, 2020

BI-RADS Classification: Reference Guide

The guide below is intended as a quick reference for mammography technologists. Whether you are studying to take your boards, or whether you simply need a refresher for presenting cases to the radiologist…

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October 7, 2020